Are divorced people excommunicated or unable to participate in the sacraments?

No. A divorce is a civil law court process that does not impact someone’s status in the eyes of the Church — in short, its only impact is in civil law. Getting a divorce does not mean someone is “excommunicated,” in the Church or unable to receive sacraments. However, since a civil divorce doesn’t impact someone’s status in the Church, it does mean that someone who is divorced but has not gotten a Catholic annulment will not be able to remarry in the Church.